EC anaidu INS

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Author Information

Anika Naidu

Basic Information

  • ID: EC_anaidu_INS
  • Name: INS
  • Organism: Human
  • Description: Insulin is a hormone that decreases blood glucose levels. When blood glucose is high, such as after a meal, beta cells in the pancreas secrete insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin then binds to sugar in the bloodstream and signals cells to absorb it and store/use it for energy. In this way, insulin regulates blood glucose levels. This function is important, because excess glucose in the bloodstream can damage blood vessels and cause hypertonicity, resulting in organ shrinkage. Type I diabetes patients cannot produce insulin due to damaged beta cells and require regular insulin injections to avoid elevated blood glucose levels (EndocrineWeb). The constant blood glucose monitoring and insulin injections can be disrupting and inconvenient for most patients. Introducing bacteria to endogenously produce insulin in the body could be a more convenient alternative. Human insulin is encoded in genes as a precursor and then is modified post-translationally by cleaving it into two chains (UniProt). This gene sequence encodes the insulin precursor (because I couldn't find the sequences for the separate chains).
  • DNA Length: 333 base pairs.
  • DNA sequence:

ATG GCC TTG TGG ATG CGT CTG CTG CCA TTA TTA GCA CTG CTG GCG CTT TGG GGC CCA GAC CCC GCT GCC GCT TTC GTA AAT CAG CAT TTG TGC GGA AGC CAC TTG GTA GAA GCT CTG TAC CTG GTC TGC GGG GAA CGT GGC TTT TTT TAC ACA CCG AAA ACA CGC CGC GAG GCT GAA GAC CTT CAG GTA GGG CAG GTA GAG TTA GGT GGC GGG CCA GGC GCG GGA TCG CTT CAA CCA CTT GCT CTT GAG GGC TCT CTG CAA AAA CGC GGT ATT GTT GAG CAA TGT TGC ACT AGC ATC TGC TCG TTG TAC CAG CTG GAA AAC TAC TGC AAC TAA

  • Amino Acid length: 110 amino acids.
  • Amino Acid sequence:

MALWMRLLPLLALLALWGPDPAAAFVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKTRREAED LQVGQVELGGGPGAGSLQPLALEGSLQKRGIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN

Function and Homologs

  • Product: Insulin
  • Closest homologous proteins:
    • PREDICTED: insulin isoform X1 [Pan paniscus], 223/100%/8e-74/99%, XP_008967344.1
    • insulin preproprotein [Pan troglodytes], 221/100%/3e-73/98%, NP_001008996.1
    • PREDICTED: insulin isoform X1 [Nomascus leucogenys], 220/100%/1e-72/98%, XP_003281396.2
  • Equivalent E. coli / JCVI functional protein: N/A

Expression

  • Expression Level: low
  • Expression Level Hypothesis: This is an extra gene that is not required for growth/viability, so it should be expressed at a low level to avoid using up too much energy/resources.
  • Expression Level References and Description: Research description above.
  • Expression Time: late
  • Expression Time Hypothesis: This is an extra gene that is not required for growth/viability, so it should be expressed late (after growth) when more resources are available.
  • Expression Time References and Description: Research description above.

Gene Context

  • Other Components: INSR Insulin receptor, the receptor to which insulin binds to affect glucose metabolism
  • Possible Dependencies: Glucose transport & catabolism, insulin regulates glucose metabolism pathways, which requires molecules involved in transport and catabolism.
  • Process: Insulin receptor phosphorylation
    • Inputs: Insulin receptor, PO3-
    • Outputs: phosphorylated insulin receptor
    • Reference: Hooper

Construct

  • Synthesis Score: The synthesis score of your construct: 1, 2,3
  • Predicted Translation Rate: Prediction of construct translation rate from the RBS calculator
  • Design Notes and Details: For example, had to use a rare codon to fix folding energy;
  • GenBank File: A link to the GenBank file. file