Lipid salvage and biogenesis

From BioE80 Boot
Jump to: navigation, search

Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis, therefore, requires the coordinated import and synthesis of proteins as well as phospholipids.

The mitochondrial inner membrane has a unique composition of proteins and phospholipids, whose interdependence is crucial for mitochondrial function. It is highly enriched in proteins specific to this membrane, the majority of which are encoded by the nuclear genome and imported from the cytosol. The lipid component contains the major classes of phospholipids found in all cell membranes, including phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidic acid (PA), as well as phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL), which are located predominantly if not exclusively in the mitochondria Reference

This is a list of genes associated with Lipid metabolism:

  • galU: produces UTP—glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, which is a critical enzyme in the glycogen synthesis pathway (JCVI-Syn3.0 version).
  • galU: produces UTP—glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, which is a critical enzyme in the glycogen synthesis pathway (E. Coli version).
  • rfaY encodes LPS core heptose(II) kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of heptose in the formation of core lipopolysaccharides in the outer membrane of E. coli.
  • WcaA: a putative glycosyltransferase, important for cell wall synthesis through colanic acid production. (JCVI)
  • WcaA: a putative glycosyltransferase, important for cell wall synthesis through colanic acid production. (E. Coli)
  • pgpA phosphatidylglycerophosphatase A, important in a pathway for synthesis of cardiolipin, a component of the cell membrane
  • pgpA phosphatidylglycerophosphatase A, important in a pathway for synthesis of cardiolipin, a component of the cell membrane
  • plsC encodes for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, which catalyzes the second step in CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis, a pathway essential to phospholipid synthesis.
  • plsC encodes for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, which catalyzes the second step in CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis, a pathway essential to phospholipid synthesis.
  • acpP encodes for acyl carrier protein, which is responsible for an important pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis.
  • acpA encodes for acyl carrier protein, which is responsible for an important pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis.
  • mdoH: a glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs), which is part of Glycan metabolism.
  • MMCAP2_0113: involved in the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates, required for the transfer of sugars to a variety of important biomolecules.
  • pgsA: is responsible for reacting with water in order to produce phosphatidylglycerol and phosphate, which is vital in the production of the mitochondrial membrane.
  • pgsA: is responsible for reacting with water in order to produce phosphatidylglycerol and phosphate, which is vital in the production of the mitochondrial membrane.
  • acpS: As an acyl carrier protein, acpS is responsible for aiding in fatty acid biosynthesis
  • acpS: As an acyl carrier protein, acpS is responsible for aiding in fatty acid biosynthesis
  • fakB: Part of fatty acid kinase complex that recycles/ creates phospholipids necessary for the cell membrane
  • pyrG: Helps in the synthesis of sugars like CTP for glycolysis
  • yjcU: Gene is very unclear but help with carbohydrate function in some way
  • plsY: Gene codes for the protein Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3P Acyltransferase) which is a conserved inner membrane protein utilized in phospholipid metabolism.
  • plsX: Gene codes for the protein Phosphate acyltransferase which forms Acyl-phosphates. Acyl-phosphates are high energy intermediates that allow carboxylic acids to become improved electrophiles.
  • clsA: clsA encodes for cardiolipin synthase A which helps in the production of cardiolipin, a necessary phospholipid component of the cell membrane as it affects cell growth, antibiotic resistance, and membrane transportation
  • cardiolipin synthase : cardiolipin synthase helps in the production of cardiolipin, a necessary phospholipid component of the cell membrane as it affects cell growth, antibiotic resistance, and membrane transportation
  • EC FITM2 SUID: Epinilla. Plays an important role in lipid droplet accumulation. Plays a role in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization. FIT2 belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins involved in fat storage.
  • glpK: The gene is involved in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism by catalyzing the phosphorylation of glycerol to yield sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The gene is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis.
  • glpK: The gene is involved in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism by catalyzing the phosphorylation of glycerol to yield sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The gene is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis.
  • lgt: Lgt catalyzes the first of 3 sequential reactions that result in the formation of mature triacylated lipoproteins, including murein lipoprotein.
  • lgt: Lgt catalyzes the first of 3 sequential reactions that result in the formation of mature triacylated lipoproteins, including murein lipoprotein.
  • cdsA: CdsA diverts phosphatidic acid and coordinates cell growth and fat storage, it is involved in step 3 of the subpathway that is part of the pathway of CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis.
  • cdsA: CdsA diverts phosphatidic acid and coordinates cell growth and fat storage, it is involved in step 3 of the subpathway that is part of the pathway of CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis.