MMSYN1 0821

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Author Information

Anthony Agbay

Basic Information

  • ID: MMSYN1_0821
  • Name: hprK
  • Organism: JCVI-Syn3.0
  • Description: This gene is involved with phosphorylation (Uniprot). Specifically, hprK catalyzes the phosphorylation of HPr, which is one part of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (Uniprot). This system allows bacteria to uptake sugar/carbohydrates at the expense of PEP or ATP and prevent the molecules from diffusing out of the cell ([Postma et al. Microbiol Rev. 1993]). HPr is an intermediate group and after it’s phosphorylation, it passes the phosphoryl group to the carbohydrate via another enzyme ([Postma et al. Microbiol Rev. 1993]). This system is used to mediate carbon catabolite repression, which allows for the determination of optimal nutrient uptake ([Görke et al. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2008]).
  • DNA Length: 957 base pairs.
  • DNA sequence:

ATG GAG AAG TTC ACT ATC AAG GAT TTA ACG GAC AAC TTA AAG TTC GAG ATT ATT TCA GGT CAG GAC AAG TTA GAC ACT GAG ATT AAG AGC TAT GGG ATC AAT CGC GCA GGT TTA GAG CTT GCC GAC TAT TTT AAA CCC TTC AAA GAC CAG TCT GAA TGG CGT GCG ACC CTG ATG TCA ACC AAA GAG AGT GGT TAT ATG TTA CAA TTT GAC GAA AAG ACC AAA ATC CGT AAA TAT ACG CAA CTT ATG AAA TGT GGT ATC CCT GTT TTG ATT ATC ACC AAT AAG TTC AAG GAC AAA ACA CTG ATC AAA GTG GCT AAG CGC CTG AAT TTC CCA CTT TTG AAA TCT GAT TAC CCG ATT ACA GTC CAA CTG GTA CAA AAA ATT CAA GAT ATC TAT GAC ATT TAT TTT TCG CCC ACC AGT GAG GTT CAC GCC GCA CTG ATG AAC ATC TTT GGG ACA GGG GTA CTG ATT AAA GGT AAA TCG GGT ATT GGT AAG TCG GAG CTT TGT CTG GAG TTG ATT AAG CAT AAC CAC CTT TTT GTC GGG GAC GAT CGC ATT ATT TTG ACG AAT AAA AGC AAT AAG ATC ATC GGC CGC GTA CAC CCG ATC TTA AAG AAT CTG ATC GAG ATT CGC GGA ATT GGT ATT TTC GAT ATC GTG AAA TCC AAC GGA TAT CAA GTC ATT ATG AAT GAA TCC CCT GTA GAG CTG GTG ATC GAG CTT GTT GAA TAC AAG GAG AAG AAC ATC GAC AAC AGC GAC CGC CTT GGT AAC GAT TGG CAA AAA ACC AAG ATC CTG GGA GTT GAA ATC GAG CAT ATT CAG ATC CCC GTC TCT GCG GGG CGT TCA TTG GTG AAT ATC ATC GAG AGT GCC GTT GCA CAA TTC AAA ATT AAT AAG TCG AAG CAG TTT GAG GAT GTA TTT GAT GTA ATC CAT AAA CGT ACA AAG GAG TTT CTT TCC TCG AAA AAA TAA

  • Amino Acid length: 313 amino acids.
  • Amino Acid sequence:

MEKFTIKDLTDNLKFEIISGQDKLDTEIKSYGINRAGLELADYFKPFKDQSEWRATLMSTKESGYMLQFDEKTKIRKYTQLMKCGIPVLIITNKFKDKTLIKVAKRLNFPLLKSDYPITVQLVQKIQDIYDIYFSPTSEVHAALMNIFGTGVLIKGKSGIGKSELCLELIKHNHLFVGDDRIILTNKSNKIIGRVHPILKNLIEIRGIGIFDIVKSNGYQVIMNESPVELVIELVEYKEKNIDNSDRLGNDWQKTKILGVEIEHIQIPVSAGRSLVNIIESAVAQFKINKSKQFEDVFDVIHKRTKEFLSSKK

Function and Homologs

  • Product: hprK
  • Closest homologous proteins: The top (max three) homologous proteins to this protein, as identified by BLAST searches.
    • HPr(Ser) kinase/phosphatase [Mycoplasma mycoides], 632/100%/0/100%, [1]
    • HPr kinase/phosphatase [Mycoplasma leachii], 612/100%/0/96%, [2]
    • HPr(Ser) kinase/phosphatase [Mycoplasma capricolum], 608/100%/0/95%, [3]
  • Equivalent E. coli / JCVI functional protein: ptsI.

Expression

  • Expression Level: High
  • Expression Level Hypothesis: Carbohydrate uptake is an essential pathway that feeds into energy production cycles, such as glycolysis. As a result, hprK must be expressed at a high level to catalyze this process at a sufficient level.
  • Expression Level References and Description: I gathered the information to come to my expression level hypothesis by reading the literature on the protein. A general overview of the PTS system can be found in the [1993 review by Postma et. al]. [The 2009 study by Pinedo et al.] explores the phenotypes of hprK mutant strains and finds significant changes in phenotypes. Additionally, I have used the paper by [Galinier et al.] to continue to explore the consequences of the loss of function of either HPr (unable to be phosphorylated) or the loss of function of HPrK.
  • Expression Time: Right at the beginning
  • Expression Level Hypothesis: Processes like glycolysis and other energy producing pathways usually require a carbohydrate starting material. Without the presence of hprK at the beginning, carbohydrate intake will be significantly hampered and the cell would not be able to proliferate properly.
  • Expression Time References and Description: Similar to the expression level, I the same general reviews of the PTS system and the discussion on hprK mutants to determine how essential the gene is to proper cellular function.

Gene Context

  • Other Components: HPr
  • Possible Dependencies: IIAGlc (inhibits non-PTS uptake systems, allowing for greater expression) [Postma et. al (Microbiol Rev 1993)]
  • Process: Glycolysis
    • Inputs: Water, Oxygen, Carbohydrates (Usually Glucose)
    • Outputs: ATP