Translation

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File:Example.jpgThese are genes that contribute to translation within the cell:

  • rpSU rpIU encodes part of the 30s ribosomal subunit S21 which is a structural constituent of the ribosome and is crucial for translation and later protein expression.
  • rpSU rpIU encodes for part of the 30s ribosomal protein subunit S21 in E. Coli. It is a structural constituent of the ribosome and necessary for translation and later protein expression
  • rpIU rpIU encodes for the 50s ribosomal protein subunit L21 in E. Coli. It is a structural constituent of the ribosome.
  • rpIU rpIU encodes the 50s ribosomal protein L21 which comes into contact with L20 and is a structural constituent of the ribosome.
  • alaRSis a gene which encodes alanine tRNA ligase which catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA.
  • ALAS is the E. Coli version of a gene which encodes alanine tRNA ligase which catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA.
  • rpsM: The rpsM gene encodes the 30s ribosomal protein S13, which is involved in binding fMet-tRNA and, hence, in the initiation of translation. (E.Coli Homologue)
  • rpsJ: The rpsJ gene encodes the 30s ribosomal protein S10, which is involved in binding tRNA to the ribosome. (E.Coli Homologue)
  • infC | MMSYN1 0200[1]: infC is a translation initiation factor and a ribosomal dissociation factor.
  • infC | EG10506[2]: infC is a translation initiation factor and a ribosomal dissociation factor present in E. Coli.
  • rpmI | MMSYN1 0199[3]: rpmI is a large ribosomal subunit. It contributes to the structure of the ribosome.
  • rpmI | EG11231[4]: rpmI is a large ribosomal subunit. It contributes to the structure of the ribosome in E. coli cells.
  • rpsP: The rpsP gene encodes the 30S ribosomal subunit protein S16. The small 30S ribosomal subunit is essential during the process of mRNA translation, as it facilitates binding between the codon on mRNA and the anticodon on tRNA.
  • rpsP: The rpsP gene encodes the 30S ribosomal subunit protein S16. The small 30S ribosomal subunit is essential during the process of mRNA translation, as it facilitates binding between the codon on mRNA and the anticodon on tRNA.
  • metG: The metG gene encodes the methionine—tRNA ligase enzyme which is essential for the initiation of mRNA translation and for the elongation of protein synthesis.
  • metG: The metG gene encodes methionyl-tRNA synthase which is essential for the initiation of mRNA translation and for the elongation of protein synthesis.
  • rplF: encodes the L6 protein which is a component of the 50S subunit of the ribosome and is involved in the late stage assembly of 50S ribosomal subunits.
  • rplF: encodes the L6 protein which is a component of the 50S subunit of the ribosome and is involved in the late stage assembly of 50S ribosomal subunits.
  • MMSYN1 0649: Although not 100% certain, it's believed that this gene is responsible for creating a protein that ensures that the mRNA is read properly even when the tRNA isn't available at the beginning of the sequence.
  • EG10504: Although not 100% certain, it's believed that this gene is responsible for creating a protein that ensures that the mRNA is read properly even when the tRNA isn't available at the beginning of the sequence.
  • gatB: catalyzes the generation of Asn-tRNA or Gln-tRNA.
  • [MMSYN1_0872|ychF] encodes ychF, an ATPase that binds to both ribosomal subunits, and thus is thought to provide energy for translation via the dephosphorylation of ATP into ADP.
  • [MMSYN1_0666|rpIV] encodes Ribosomal Protein L22. L22 lines the ribosome's polypetide exit tunnel and is one of the earliest proteins to interact with newly formed polypeptides; as such, it has been proposed to regulate the rate of translation.
  • LysS encodes lysine-tRNA synthetase, the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that bonds L-lysine to its cognate tRNA prior to translation initiation.
  • EG10770 | proRS encodes for an enzyme called proline-tRNA ligase in E. coli.
  • asnRS asnRS encodes for Asparagine-tRNA ligase, which activates asparagine for translation by forming an aminoacyladenylate intermediate and then linking this activated amino acid to the corresponding tRNA molecule.
  • asnS asnS encodes for Asparagine-tRNA ligase, which activates asparagine for translation by forming an aminoacyladenylate intermediate and then linking this activated amino acid to the corresponding tRNA molecule.
  • pdf pdf encodes for peptide deformylase, which releases the formyl group from the amino terminal methionine residue of most nascent proteins.
  • def def encodes for peptide deformylase, which releases the formyl group from the amino terminal methionine residue of most nascent proteins.
  • pkn this gene most likely serine/threonine protein kinase, which transfers phosphates to the oxygen atom of a serine or threonine sidechain in proteins.
  • srkA srkA encodes for a serine/threonine protein kinase that protects cells from several types of lethal stress.
  • MMSYN1_ 0025, EG10917 (rpsR): encodes the 30S ribosomal protein S18, which binds with protein S6 to the central domain of the 16S rRNA, where it helps stabilize the platform of the 30S subunit.
  • MMSYN1 0613, EG11043 (tyrS): codes protein TyrRS. TyrRS is a member of the family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which interpret the genetic code by covalently linking amino acids to their specific tRNA molecules.
  • rpsC MMSYN1 0665, rpsC Binds the lower part of the 30S subunit head. Binds mRNA in the 70S ribosome, positioning it for translation.
  • rpsC EG10902, rpsC Binds the lower part of the 30S subunit head. Binds mRNA in the 70S ribosome, positioning it for translation.
  • rplP MMSYN1 0664 rplP binds directly to 23S ribosomal RNA and is located at the A site of the peptidyltransferase center. It contacts the A and P site tRNAs. It has an essential role in subunit assembly.
  • rplP EG10877, rplP binds directly to 23S ribosomal RNA and is located at the A site of the peptidyltransferase center. It contacts the A and P site tRNAs. It has an essential role in subunit assembly.
  • MMSYN1_0653/ EG10876/ rplO, encodes for L15, a ribosomal protein which binds to 5S rRNA. It allows for 5S rRNA to assemble onto a ribosome.
  • MMSYN1_0776/ EG11782/ smpB, Handles marking ribosomes for ‘trans-translation,’ which helps mediate ribosomes that have been stalled during translation.
  • argS JCVI, argS E.coli argS encodes for Arginine-tRNA ligase which is an aminoacyl tRNA synthase that links amino acids convalently to their specific tRNA molecules through ATP hydrolysis.
  • PrmC E. Coli, PrmC (release factor glutamine methyltransferase) modifies the peptide release factors RF1/PrfA and RF2/PrfB on the glutamine residue of their GGQ motif. Specifically, it methylates these peptide chain release factors to increase termination efficiency.
  • PrmC JCVI-Syn3.0 PrmC (release factor glutamine methyltransferase) modifies the peptide release factors RF1/PrfA and RF2/PrfB on the glutamine residue of their GGQ motif. Specifically, it methylates these peptide chain release factors to increase termination efficiency.
  • EG11232 This gene, also known as rpmJ, creates a complimentary subunit of the ribosome in order to make it's bonding process more efficient. Although the gene appears to be nonessential, it speeds up the synthesis process significantly, making it useful to the survival of the cell.
  • MMSYN1 0648 This gene generates ribosomal protein L36, which allows the ribosome to work more effectively within the cell. Similar to its E.coli counterpart (EG11232), this is more of an optimization than an essential gene
  • MMSYN1 0833 paomart This gene creates a ribosomal protein that is involved in translation fidelity by avoiding errors during translation such as stalled ribosome, frameshifting, and stop-hopping.
  • EG10870 This gene creates a ribosomal protein that is involved in translation fidelity by avoiding errors during translation such as stalled ribosome, frameshifting, and stop-hopping.
  • MMSYN1 0478 This is one of the unknown genes. it most likely creates a protein that serves in an optimization role
  • map JCVI Map (Methionine aminopeptidase, type I) in JCVI catalyzes the release of N-terminal amino acids (preferentially methionine) from peptides and arylamides
  • map E. Coli Map (Methionine aminopeptidase, type I) in e. Coli catalyzes the release of N-terminal amino acids (preferentially methionine) from newly synthesized peptides and arylamides
  • lepA: A protein which interacts with ribosomes multiple times during the elongation phase of translation from RNA to proteins (E. coli homologue)
  • gatC Allows the formation of correctly charged Asn-tRNA(Asn) or Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Asp-tRNA(Asn) or Glu-tRNA(Gln)
  • rpsS Encodes a protein, S19, which forms a complex with S13 that binds strongly to the 16S ribosomal RNA
  • rplK: Codes for a ribosomal protein and helps with translation; Interacts with the large ribosomal subunit RNA and forms part of the ribosomal stalk.
  • rplK: Codes for a ribosomal protein and helps with translation; Interacts with the large ribosomal subunit RNA and forms part of the ribosomal stalk.
  • rplQ: Works on translation and is vital in biogenesis and gene expression; processes (splices) RNA which is carried out by small nuclear elements. E.Coli homologue
  • MMSYN1 0658 | rpsZ: Binds 16S rRNA, required for the assembly of 30S particles and may also be responsible for determining the conformation of the 16S rRNA at the A site.
  • EG10907 | rpsH: The S8 protein is a component of the 30S subunit of the ribosome and also functions in the post-transcriptional regulation of the ribosomal protein genes encoded in the spc operon. The S8 protein binds to 16S rRNA in the absence of other ribosomal proteins.
  • MMSYN1_0657 | rpsH: One of the primary rRNA binding proteins, it binds directly to 16S rRNA central domain where it helps coordinate assembly of the platform of the 30S subunit.
  • EG10913 | rpsN: The S14 protein is a component of the 30S subunit of the ribosome. S14 has a role in tRNA binding.
  • rpls Encodes the L19 ribosomal subunit which binds 16S ribosomal RNA, helping to stabilize the ribosome.
  • rpls Encodes the L19 ribosomal subunit which binds 16S ribosomal RNA, helping to stabilize the ribosome.
  • rpID is a gene that encodes 50s ribosomal protein L4 which controls ribosomal assembly and translational regulation.
  • rpID is the E. Coli version of a gene that encodes 50s ribosomal protein L4 which controls ribosomal assembly and translational regulation.
  • rplT rplT binds directly to 23S ribosomal RNA and is necessary for the in vitro assembly process of the 50S ribosomal subunit, JCVI organism [5]
  • rplT rplT One of the primary rRNA binding proteins, it binds close to the 5'-end of the 23S rRNA, E. Coli Organism [6]
  • alaRS This gene is responsible for Alanine--tRNA ligase, which is important for Transfer RNA, JCVI organism [7]
  • alaRS This gene is responsible for Alanine--tRNA ligase, which is important for Transfer RNA, E. Coli organism [8]
  • gluRs, gluRs Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction, JCVI organism
  • tsf tsf associates with the EF-Tu.GDP complex and induces the exchange of GDP to GTP. It remains bound to the aminoacyl-tRNA.EF-Tu.GTP complex up to the GTP hydrolysis stage on the ribosome
  • tsf tsf associates with the EF-Tu.GDP complex and induces the exchange of GDP to GTP. It remains bound to the aminoacyl-tRNA.EF-Tu.GTP complex up to the GTP hydrolysis stage on the ribosome
  • trpRS trpRS (Tryptophan--tRNA ligase) is involved in the catalysis of the reaction: ATP + L-tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) = AMP + diphosphate + L-tryptophanyl-tRNA(Trp). The process of coupling tryptophan to tryptophanyl-tRNA, catalyzed by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. In tRNA aminoacylation, the amino acid is first activated by linkage to AMP and then transferred to either the 2'- or the 3'-hydroxyl group of the 3'-adenosine residue of the tRNA.
  • trpS Tryptophan-tRNA ligase (TrpRS) is a member of the family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which interpret the genetic code by covalently linking amino acids to their specific tRNA molecules. The reaction is driven by ATP hydrolysis. TrpRS belongs to the Class I aminoacyl tRNA synthetases.
  • rpmB rpmB encodes the 50S ribosomal protein L28, which provides structural constituent of ribosome and contributes to the structural integrity of the ribosome.
  • rpmB rpmB encodes the 50S ribosomal protein L28, which provides structural constituent of ribosome and contributes to the structural integrity of the ribosome.
  • hisS Histidine-tRNA ligase (hisS) is a member of the family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which interpret the genetic code by covalently linking amino acids to their specific tRNA molecules. Serves for ATP binding.
  • hisS Histidine-tRNA ligase (hisS) is a member of the family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which interpret the genetic code by covalently linking amino acids to their specific tRNA molecules. Serves for ATP binding.
  • gltX, gltX Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction, E. Coli organism
  • rplL rpIL encodes for the 50S ribosomal protein L12, which is the binding site for several of the GTPase factors involved in protein synthesis.
  • rpsT rpsT The S20 protein is a component of the 30S subunit of the ribosome, JCVI organism
  • rpsT rpsT The S20 protein is a component of the 30S subunit of the ribosome, E. Coli organism
  • pth, pth or peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, is a gene involved in lambda inhibition of host protein synthesis
  • rplL rpIL encodes for the 50S ribosomal protein L12, which is the binding site for several of the GTPase factors involved in protein synthesis.
  • pth pth is a gene involved in lambda inhibition of host protein synthesis
  • yciO yciO is a gene that bonds double-stranded RNA.
  • rpsL rpsL is a gene that stabilizes the rRNA bases involved in the tRNA selection in site A and with the mRNA backbone. JCVI organism
  • rpsG rpsG is one of the primary binding proteins which can also serve as a translational repressor protein. JCVI organism
  • rpsL rpsL plays a critical role in translational accuracy, as well as being a part of a protein cluster that holds together parts of the 30S subunit. E. Coli organism
  • rpsG rpsG is a translational feedback repressor within the 30S subunit of the ribosome. E. Coli organism
  • rpsB is the S2 component in the 30S subunit of the ribosome and is required for S1 (another ribosome structural protein) binding to the ribosome in E. coli.
  • rpsB is the S2 component in the 30S subunit of the ribosome and is required for S1 (another ribosome structural protein) binding to the ribosome in JCVI.
  • ValS is an enzyme catalyzing the reaction a tRNAval + L-valine + ATP → an L-valyl-[tRNAval] + AMP + diphosphate, covalently linking L-valine to its specific tRNA molecule using ATP hydrolysis in JCVI.
  • ValS is an enzyme catalyzing the reaction a tRNAval + L-valine + ATP → an L-valyl-[tRNAval] + AMP + diphosphate, covalently linking L-valine to its specific tRNA molecule using ATP hydrolysis in E. coli.
  • rpmC is a component of the 50S subunit of the ribosome and works together with ACP to stimulate the binding of Tn7-encoded TnsD to attTn7.
  • rpmC is a component of the 50S subunit of E. coli ribosomes, and is photoaffinity labeled by puromycin, an analog of the 3' end of aminoacylated tRNA.
  • rplA is a component of the 50S subunit of the ribosome and functions in the post-transcriptional regulation of the ribosomal protein genes encoded in the L11 operon.
  • rplA The L1 protein is a component of the 50S subunit of the E. coli ribosome and is a translational repressor of the synthesis of L11 and L1, the proteins encoded by the L11 operon.
  • dhh1 This protein is involved in nucleic acid binding. Proteins in this family play important roles in DNA repair and recombination pathways, as well as catalyze 5’-3’ degradation of DNA.
  • EF-G Translation elongation factor G (E. coli). This protein catalyzes movement of tRNA from the A and P sites to the P and E sites during translation.
  • EF-G Translation elongation factor G (JCVI-Syn3.0). This protein catalyzes movement of tRNA from the A and P sites to the P and E sites during translation.
  • EF-Tu Translation elongation factor Tu (E. coli). This gene encodes a protein that assists in tRNA binding to the ribosome. If the cell is infected by bacteriophage Qbeta, the protein will become part of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex.
  • EF-Tu Translation elongation factor Tu (JCVI-Syn3.0). This gene encodes a protein that helps amino acid-carrying tRNA bind to the A site of the ribosome. The binding reaction is dependent on GTP.
  • rpmA rpmA encodes the 50S ribosomal protein L27, which is an integral and functional component of the peptidyl transferase center.
  • rpmA rpmA encodes the 50S ribosomal protein L27, which is an integral and functional component of the peptidyl transferase center.